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Word: Definition: Tags: Submitted By: Date Submitted:
spiked head A Spiked head is a crack going from the rim of the coin into the skull. error cracked die Nicholas 2013-12-05
numismatist A person interested in numismatics. A collector of coins and/or another currencies. numismatics Nicholas 2012-07-15
scalloped A type of edge with a series of curved projections. The 1950 1 Pe coin from Burma is an example of a coin with a scalloped edge. edge Nicholas 2012-03-21
Nagari An antiquated writing system first used in India in 750 A.D. There are a number of older coins from India that have a Nagari letter or words inscribed. Nicholas 2012-01-25
fasces A bundle of wooden sticks with an axe blade emerging from the center, which is an image that traditionally symbolizes summary power and jurisdiction, and/or "strength through unity". The reverse of the U.S. Winged Liberty Head Dime (1916-1945) depicts a fasces. Fasces is used for both singular and plural form. Nicholas 2011-09-23
Xu The historic fractional currency unit of Vietnam; there were 100 xu to the dong. Since reunification, xu coins have not been issued. EgCollector 2011-08-15
XF-45 Short for EF-45 EgCollector 2011-08-15
XF-40 Short for EF-40 EgCollector 2011-08-15
X Mintmark for the city of Amiens (French coins). EgCollector 2011-08-15
Yuan The Chinese name for a dollar-sized silver coin, and the primary currency unit of the Republic of China. Communist china uses the renminbi yuan, while the Taiwanese yuan is more normally called a "dollar" today. EgCollector 2011-08-15
Yen The primary currency unit of Japan. Originally a large, dollar-sized silver coin on par with the Chinese yuan (from which it's name derives), and formerly divided into 100 sen, post-WWII inflation caused the yen to become a unitary currency. EgCollector 2011-08-15
Yefimok The name given to a thaler or dollar-sized coin that has been countermarked for use in Russia in the mid-1600's. EgCollector 2011-08-15
Y Mintmark for the city of: Bourges (French coins). EgCollector 2011-08-15
Zs (mintmark) Mintmark for the city of Zacatecas on Mexican coins. EgCollector 2011-08-15
Zloty The primary currency unit of Poland; there are 100 groszy to the zloty. The name derives from the old Russian unit of weight, the zolotnik. EgCollector 2011-08-15
Z Mintmark for the cities of: Grenoble (French coins), Zacatecas (Spanish-Mexican coins). EgCollector 2011-08-15
alignment Coins have two alignments: coin alignment and medal alignment. This refers to how the obverse and reverse are positioned to each other. Coins aligned using coin alignment are minted with the reverse rotated 180 degrees (upside down) from the obverse. Medal aligned coins are not rotated. See our article on alignment for more information coin alignment medal alignment obverse reverse Nicholas 2011-08-01
ptas abbreviation for "pesetas" often seen on Spanish coins. kowboykarl 2011-07-31
Regular Circulating Coin A term used by CoinBrag to differentiate normal circulating currency from circulating commemorative coins. Technically any coin with a person, place or thing depicted is commemorating what is portrayed. For example in the United States, the quarter dollar coin has had George Washingon's face on the obverse side since 1932. Though most numismatists would classify the coins minted between 1932 and 1974 as well as the 1977-1998 coins as normal circulating coins while the 1976 coin is considere commemorative non-circulating commemorative numismatist Nicholas 2011-07-23
token Tokens are coin-like objects used in place of coins and either have a denomination shown or implied by size, color or shape. Today Subways, arcades, and amusement parks will often use tokens. In the past, the types of merchants that issued tokens included general stores, grocers, department stores, dairies, meat markets, drug stores, saloons, bars, taverns, barbers, coal mines, lumber mills and many other businesses. exonumia Nicholas 2011-07-23
bullion round A precious metal such as silver, gold, platinum or palladium that has been shaped to resemble a coin. Bullion rounds are frequently made by private companies to resemble past or present legal tender. bullion bullion value Nicholas 2011-07-23
Dupondius A medium-sized ancient Roman bronze or orichalcum coin. It's name means "two pounder" because the original dupondii actually weighed two Roman pounds of copper. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Dump Any coin which is unusually thick for it's size. Often applied to the native coinage of India, and to any small coin punched out of the centre of a larger one; the New South Wales "Dump" was punched out of the centre of a Spanish dollar. EgCollector 2011-06-10
dull Term for a numismatic item that is lack luster. This may be the result of cleaning, oxidation, or other environmental conditions. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Duit A small copper Dutch coin, struck in the Netherlands and in Dutch colonies from the 1500's to the 1800's. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Ducat European gold trade coin from the late mediaeval and early modern period. The name derives from ducatus, the Latin form of the title of the Doge of Venice, where the ducat was first issued in 1284. The coin was copied throughout mainland Europe, and coins of the ducat standard - 3.49 grams of .983 fine gold (23½ carats) - were struck in several European countries up to the 20th century, and continue to be struck in the Netherlands. EgCollector 2011-06-10
drift mark An area on a coin, often rather long, that has a discolored, streaky look. This is the result of impurities or foreign matter in the dies. One theory is that burnt wood was rolled into the strips from which the planchets were cut, resulting in these black streaks. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Draped Bust The design attributed to Mint engraver Robert Scot that features Miss Liberty with a drape across her bust. Scot presumably copied the design after a portrait by Gilbert Stuart. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Dram The primary currency unit of Armenia; there are 100 luma to the dram. The name derives from the Arabic dirham and Greek drachm. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Drachma Monetary unit of modern Greece, used from the early 1800's until the adoption of the euro in 2002. The name is derived from the ancient Greek drachm. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Drachm A small ancient Greek silver coin. The word means "handful" and derives from the value of a handful of iron bars, the currency used in ancient Greece before the invention of coinage. The name is also given to the large, thin silver coins of the Sassanian Empire. EgCollector 2011-06-10
DPG Short For Daily Price Guide, specifically the Coin Universe Daily Price Guide EgCollector 2011-06-10
Doubloon A early Spanish gold coin. The name originally applied to the gold excelente of Ferdinand and Isabella, and was later transferred to the 2 escudo coin issued by Spain and the Spanish colonies in the Americas. The name has now been linked to the Age of Pirates, the gold analog of the silver "piece of eight". The name has also been appropriated for tokens produced for the New Orleans Mardi Gras. EgCollector 2011-06-10
double-struck A condition that results when a coin is not ejected from the dies and is struck a second time. Such a coin is said to be double-struck. Triple-struck coins and other multiple strikings also are known. Proofs are usually double-struck on purpose in order to sharpen their details; this is sometimes visible under magnification. EgCollector 2011-06-10
double(d) die A die that has been struck more than once by a hub in misaligned positions, resulting in doubling of design elements. Before the introduction of hubbing, the individual elements of a coin's design were either engraved or punched into the die, so any doubling was limited to a specific element. With hubbed dies, multiple impressions are needed from the hub to make a single die with adequate detail. When shifting occurs in the alignment between the hub and the die, the die ends up with some of its EgCollector 2011-06-10
Double Eagle Literally two eagles, or twenty dollars. A twenty-dollar U.S. gold coin issued from 1850 through 1932. One gold double eagle dated 1849 is known and is part of the National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian Institution. Nearly half a million examples dated 1933 were struck by the U.S. Mint, but virtually all were melted when private gold ownership was outlawed that year. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Double A predecimal monetary unit formerly used on the British dependency of Guernsey. Named after an older French monetary unit, the double tournois. There were 8 doubles to a Guernsey penny. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Dong Primary currency unit of Vietnam, as well as the former states of North Vietnam and South Vietnam. The dong is theoretically subdivided into 10 hao and 100 xu, although inflation has rendered the dong into a defacto unitiary currency. EgCollector 2011-06-10
dollar The denomination, consisting of one hundred cents, authorized by the Mint Act of 1792. This is the anglicized spelling of the European Thaler and was used because of the world-wide acceptance of the Thaler and the Spanish Milled dollar or piece-of-eight. EgCollector 2011-06-10
doctored Term used for a numismatic item that has been enhanced by chemical or other means. Usually, this is used in a derogatory way. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Dobra The primary currency unit of Sao Tome e Principe; historically, there were 100 centimos to the dobra, but due to inflation it is now a de facto unitary currency. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Do (mintmark) Mintmark for the city of Durango on Mexican coins. EgCollector 2011-06-10
disme The original spelling of dime, the s silent and thought to have been pronounced to rhyme with steam. (This variation was used in Mint documents until the 1830s and was officially changed by the Coinage Act of 1837.) EgCollector 2011-06-10
Dirham An early Islamic silver coin. The name derives from the Greek and Sassanian drachm. The primary monetary units of Morocco and the United Arab Emirates, a secondary monetary unit of Jordan, and the fractional monetary units of Libya and Qatar are all named after this coin. The Tajikistan fractional unit, the diram, is also named after this coin. EgCollector 2011-06-10
dipping solution Any of the commercial "dips" available on the market, usually acid-based. EgCollector 2011-06-10
dipped A term applied to a coin that has been placed in a commercial "dip" solution, a mild acid wash that removes the toning from most coins. Some dip solutions employ other chemicals, such as bases, to accomplish a similar result. The first few layers of metal are removed with every dip, so coins repeatedly dipped will lose luster, hence the term "overdipped". EgCollector 2011-06-10
ding Slang term for a small to medium size mark. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Dinar An early Islamic gold coin. The name derives from the Roman denarius. In the early days of the Caliphate, the Islamic dinar and the Byzantine solidus weighed the same, and were accepted at par. The primary monetary units of many Arab nations, namely Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Tunisia and Iraq, are all named after this coin. The dinar was also the primary monetary of old Yugoslavia, and some of it's successor states (Macedonia and Serbia), though these are named after a mediaeval Se EgCollector 2011-06-10
dime The denomination, one tenth of a dollar, issued since 1796 by the United States. EgCollector 2011-06-10
die wear Deterioration in a die caused by excessive use. This may evidence itself on coins produced with that die in a few indistinct letters or numerals or, in extreme cases, a loss of detail throughout the entire coin. Some coins, especially certain nickel issues, have a fuzzy, indistinct appearance even on Uncirculated examples. EgCollector 2011-06-10
die variety A coin that can be linked to a given set of dies because of characteristics possessed by those dies and mparted to the coin at the time it was struck. In the early years of U.S. coinage history, when dies were made by hand engraving or punching, each die was slightly different. The coins from these unique dies are die varieties and are collected in every denomination. By the 1840's, when dies were made by hubbing and therefore were more uniform, die varieties resulted mainly from variances in th EgCollector 2011-06-10
die trial A test striking of a particular die in a different metal. EgCollector 2011-06-10
die striations Raised lines on coins that were struck with polished dies. As more coins are struck with such dies, the striations become fainter until most disappear. EgCollector 2011-06-10
die state A readily identified point in the life of a coinage die. Often dies clash and are polished, crack, break, etc., resulting in different stages of the die. These are called die states. Some coins have barely distinguishable die states, while others go through multiple distinctive ones. EgCollector 2011-06-10
die stage There are two definitions for this term. One, many numismatists use it as a synonym for "die state." Two, some numismatists use the term "die stage" to refer to the specific status of a certain die state. For instance, in die state XYZ this coin exhibits a large cud at six o'clock, but in this particular die stage the cud isn't fully formed. EgCollector 2011-06-10
die rust Rust that has accumulated on a die that was not stored properly. Often such rust was polished away, so that only the deeply recessed parts of the die still exhibited it. A few examples are known of coins that were struck with extremely rusted dies - the 1876-CC dime, for one. EgCollector 2011-06-10
die line These are the raised lines on the coins that result from the polish lines on the die, which are incuse, resulting in the raised lines on the coins. EgCollector 2011-06-10
die crack A raised, irregular line on a coin, ranging from very fine to very large, some quite irregular. These result when a hairline break occurs in a die. EgCollector 2011-06-10
die break An area of a coin that is the result of a broken die. This may be triangular or other geometric shape. Dies are made of steel and they crack from use and then, if not removed from service, eventually break. When the die totally breaks apart, the resultant break will result in a full, or retained, cud depending whether the broken piece falls from the die or not. EgCollector 2011-06-10
die alignment Term to indicate the relative position of the obverse and reverse dies. When the dies are out of alignment, several things can happen: If the dies are out of parallel, weakness may be noted in a quadrant of the coin's obverse and the corresponding part of the reverse; and if the dies are spaced improperly, the resultant coins may have overall weakness; if the dies are spaced too close together, the resultant coin may be well struck but the dies wear more quickly. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Didrachm An ancient Greek silver coin, worth two drachms. EgCollector 2011-06-10
device punch A steel rod with a raised device on the end used to punch the element into a working die. This technique was used before hubbed dies became the norm. EgCollector 2011-06-10
device Any specific design element. Often refers to the principal design element, such as the head of Miss Liberty. EgCollector 2011-06-10
designer The individual responsible for a particular motif used for a numismatic series. EgCollector 2011-06-10
design type A specific motif placed upon coinage which may be used for several denominations and subtypes, e.g., the Liberty Seated design type used for silver coins from half dimes through dollars and various subtypes therein. EgCollector 2011-06-10
design A particular motif on a coin or other numismatic item. The Seated Liberty, Barber, Morgan, etc. are examples of designs. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Denver Mint The Denver Mint was established in 1906. It had formerly been an Assay Office since 1863. Today, this Mint manufactures coins of all denominations for general circulation, medals, coin dies, stores gold and silver bullion, manufactures uncirculated coin sets and commemorative coins. This mint uses the "D" mintmark. EgCollector 2011-06-10
dentils Short for denticles. EgCollector 2011-06-10
denticles The tooth-like devices around the rim seen on many coins. Originally these are somewhat irregular, later much more uniform - the result of better preparatory and striking machinery. EgCollector 2011-06-10
denomination The value assigned by a government to a specific coin. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Denarius An ancient Roman silver coin. It's name means "tenner" because it was originally worth 10 asses; this was later retariffed to 16 asses. EgCollector 2011-06-10
deep mirror prooflike Any coin that has deeply reflective mirror-like fields, the term especially applicable for Morgan dollars. Those Morgan dollars that meet PCGS standards are designated deep mirror prooflike (DMPL). EgCollector 2011-06-10
Deep Cameo The term applied to coins, usually Proofs and prooflike coins, that have deeply frosted devices and lettering that contrast with the fields - often called "black and white" cameos. Specifically applied to those 1950 and later Proofs that meet deep cameo standards (DCAM). EgCollector 2011-06-10
Decime The equivalent if a dime in French-speaking countries. The denomination was struck in post-revolutionary France and Haiti, as well as Monaco, but the term is no longer in use. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Decimalization The process where a country adopts a decimal currency, in which the main monetary unit is worth multiples of 10 or 100 of a smaller monetary unit. Decimalization happened in Britain in 1970, when the old predecimal system of 12 pence to a shilling, 20 shillings to a pound was replaced with the current system of 100 new pence to the pound. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Decadrachm Also spelled "Dekadrachm", a large silver coin issued by a few ancient Greek city states and kingdoms. The decadrachms of Syracuse are widely regarded as the most beautiful of all ancient coins. EgCollector 2011-06-10
dealer Someone whose occupation is buying, selling, and trading numismatic material. EgCollector 2011-06-10
DCAM Short for Deep Cameo. EgCollector 2011-06-10
DC Short for Deep Cameo. EgCollector 2011-06-10
date The numerals on a coin representing the year in which it was struck. Restrikes are made in years subsequent to the one that appears on them. Also, slang for a more valuable issue within a series. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Darkside Coin forum slang for "foreign". The term derives from the observation that the stereotypical American coin collector focuses only on American coins and knows more about the darkside of the Moon than they know about foreign coins. Coins that you're likely to find in change (like Canadian coins in the US) are sometimes called "greyside" - not quite as "dark". EgCollector 2011-06-10
Daric An ancient Persian gold coin, of the same basic design as the silver siglos. The daric is the first coin mentioned in the bible (Ezra 8:27). EgCollector 2011-06-10
Dalasi The primary monetary unit of Gambia. Divided into 100 bututs. The name derives from rendering "dollar" in the local Mankinda language. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Dahlonega Mint After the discovery of gold in the southern United States a new mint was constructed in Dahlonega, Georgia. The first coinage exited its doors in 1838 and it continued minting until it was closed due to the civil war in 1861. The 1861-D gold dollars were struck after the Mint was seized, the mintage figure for this rare issue is not listed in Mint records and has been estimated at 1,000 to 1,500 examples. The Dahlonega Mint struck only gold coins and used the "D" mintmark. EgCollector 2011-06-10
D-Mint Term used for the gold coinage struck at the branch Mint in Dahlonega, Georgia, from 1838 to 1861, and for the coinage struck at the branch Mint in Denver, Colorado, from 1906 to the present. EgCollector 2011-06-10
D Mintmark for the cities of: Dahlonega, Georgia (US gold coins from 1838 to 1861), Denver, Colorado (US coins of all denominations from 1906 to the present, as well as Australian coins of WWII), Lyon (French coins), Munich (German coins), Durango (Spanish-Mexican coins) Aurich (Prussian coins to 1848). EgCollector 2011-06-10
CV Abbreviation for "catalog value", the value a coin has according to the book or catalog most usually referenced for that particular coin type. EgCollector 2011-06-10
CUZco monogram (mintmark) Mintmark for the city of Cuzco on Peruvian and Spanish-Peruvian coins. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Currency A synonym for "money", the word has in recent years (particularly in America) taken on the more specific meaning of "paper money" or "banknotes". EgCollector 2011-06-10
cupro-nickel Any alloy of copper and nickel. Now usually used in reference to the modern "sandwich" issues. The copper-nickel cents, three-cent nickel issues, and nickel issues are also cupro-nickel. EgCollector 2011-06-10
cud An area of a coin struck by a die that has a complete break across part of its surface. A cud may be either a retained cud, where the faulty piece of the die is still in place, or a full cud, where the piece of the die has fallen away. Retained cuds usually have dentil detail if on the edge, while full cuds do not. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Crown A large silver coin of Great Britain and the British colonies, valued at 5 shillings. The name is also used in a more general sense, of any large silver coin roughly the same size as a crown. EgCollector 2011-06-10
crossover A word that is used to describe a coin that graded the same at two different grading services. Also written as two words: cross over. "I was sure that the coin wouldn't cross over, so I didn't buy it." or "That coin's definitely a crossover." EgCollector 2011-06-10
Cowry shells Seashells which became a form of primitive money used in various parts of the world, especially in areas far from the sea or where cowry shells were not abundant, particularly in China, the west coast of Africa, and the Pacific islands. The species known as "money cowries" (Cypraea moneta) was most commonly used for this purpose. Bone, stone, jade and copper imitations of cowries were the earliest known objects specifically made for use as money, in China, circa 2000 BC. In mmodern times, the "c EgCollector 2011-06-10
Cow (mintmark) Mintmark for the city of Pau (French coins). Coins from this mint are also distinguished by the addition of the letters "BD" (abbreviation for "Duke of Bearn") to the king's titles EgCollector 2011-06-10
counting machine mark A dense patch of lines caused by the rubber wheel of a counting machine where the wheel was set with insufficient spacing for the selected coin. Many coins have been subjected to counting machines - among these are Mercury dimes, Buffalo nickels, Walking Liberty half dollars, Morgan and Peace dollars, and Saint-Gaudens double eagles. EgCollector 2011-06-10
counting board An abacus-like arrangement used with jetons or rechenpfennig, which assisted with calculating in Roman numerals, and also with reckoning amounts of money in complicated pre-decimal and multinational monetary systems. EgCollector 2011-06-10
counterstamp A stamp or impression placed on a coin after it has left the Mint of origin. Counterstamps were frequently used as advertising gimmicks on large cents and other coins. The counterstamp leaves a permanent impression on the metal and may hurt the value of the coin. It may also help the value, as in the case of an Ephriam Brasher counterstamp. EgCollector 2011-06-10
counterfeit Literally, a coin that is not genuine. There are cast and struck counterfeits and the term is also applied to issues with added mint marks, altered dates, etc. EgCollector 2011-06-10
cost The price paid for a numismatic item. EgCollector 2011-06-10
corrosion Damage that results when reactive chemicals act upon metal. When toning ceases to be a "protective" coating and instead begins to damage a coin, corrosion is the cause. Usually confined to copper, nickel and silver regular issues, although patterns in aluminum, white metal, tin, etc., also are subject to this harmful process. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Coronet Head Alternate name for Braided Hair design by Christian Gobrecht (also called Liberty Head design). EgCollector 2011-06-10
Cordoba The primary monetary unit of Nicaragua; there are 100 centavos to the cordoba. Named after the founder of Nicaragua, Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba. The cordoma has been revaluated twice in recent years, due to hyperinflation. EgCollector 2011-06-10
copy dies Dies made at a later date, usually showing slight differences from the originals. Examples include the reverse of 1804 Class II and III silver dollars and 1831 half cents with the Type of 1840-57 reverse. Also used to denote counterfeit dies copied directly from a genuine coin. EgCollector 2011-06-10
copy Any reproduction, fraudulent or otherwise, of a coin. EgCollector 2011-06-10
coppers Slang for half cents, large cents, and pre-Federal copper issues. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Copper-Nickel Cent The cents issued from 1859 until 1864 in the copper-nickel alloy. These were called white cents by the citizens of the era because of their pale color compared to the red cents of the past. EgCollector 2011-06-10
copper-nickel The alloy (88% copper, 12% nickel) used for small cents from 1856 until mid-1864. EgCollector 2011-06-10
copper spot A spot or stain commonly seen on gold coinage, indicating an area of copper concentration that has oxidized. Copper spots or stains range from tiny dots to large blotches. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Continental dollars 1776 dated "dollars" struck in pewter (scarce), brass (rare), copper (extremely rare) and silver (extremely rare). Although likely struck sometime later than 1776, these saw extensive circulation. The design was inspired by certain Benjamin Franklin sketches. Some of these were possibly struck as pattern "cents" instead of "dollars." EgCollector 2011-06-10
contemporary counterfeit A coin, usually base metal, struck from crudely engraved dies and made to pass for face value at the time of its creation. Sometimes such counterfeits are collected along with the genuine coins, especially in the case of American Colonial issues. EgCollector 2011-06-10
contact marks Marks on a coin that are incurred through contact with another coin or a foreign object. These are generally small, compared to other types of marks such as gouges. EgCollector 2011-06-10
consensus grading The process of determining the condition of a coin by using multiple graders. EgCollector 2011-06-10
condition rarity A term to indicate a common coin that is rare when found in high grades. Also, the rarity level at a particular grade and higher. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Condition Census A listing of the finest known examples of a particular issue. There is no fixed number of coins in a Condition Census with 5, 6, 10, and other totals used by different surveyors. EgCollector 2011-06-10
condition The state of preservation of a particular numismatic issue. EgCollector 2011-06-10
complete set A term for all possible coins within a series, all types, or all coins from a particular branch Mint. Examples would include a complete set of a series (The three-dollar series can have but one complete set, that being the Harry Bass Foundation set that includes the unique 1870-S. Yes, it is possible that the cornerstone coin could appear someday and change the unique status; a complete gold type set would include examples of all types from 1795 until 1933; a complete set of Charlotte Mint gold EgCollector 2011-06-10
Communion Token Tokens used in certain closed-communion churches, particularly Scottish (Presbyterian), to gain entry to the communion service. EgCollector 2011-06-10
common date A particular issue within a series that is readily available. No exact number can be used to determine which coins are common dates as this is relative to the mintage of the series. (i.e. A 1799 eagle is a common date within its series just as an 1881-S silver dollar is a common date within the Morgan series. Obviously, the 1799 eagle is rare compared to the 1881-S dollar.) EgCollector 2011-06-10
common A numismatic issue that is readily available. Since this is a relative term, no firm number can be used as a cut-off point between common and scarce. EgCollector 2011-06-10
commercial strike A synonym for regular strike or business strike. EgCollector 2011-06-10
commercial grade A grade that is usually one level higher than the market grade; refers to a coin that is "pushed" a grade, such as an EF/AU coin (corresponding to 45+) sold as AU-50. EgCollector 2011-06-10
commem Short for "commemorative." EgCollector 2011-06-10
Colon The primary monetary units of Costa Rica and El Salvador. The plural is colones. "Colon" is the Spanish name for Christopher Columbus. EgCollector 2011-06-10
collector An individual who amasses a systematic group of coins or other numismatic items. EgCollector 2011-06-10
collar A metal piece that either positions a planchet beneath the dies and/or restrains the expanding metal of a coin during striking. Collars are considered the "third" die and, today, are used to impart the edge markings to a coin. Collars can be merely a hole in a flat piece of metal or a set of segments that pull away from the coin after it is struck. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Coins Magazine Monthly numismatic periodical. EgCollector 2011-06-10
coinage The issuance of metallic money of a particular country. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Coin World Weekly numismatic periodical established in 1960. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Coin Universe Internet site established in 1994 for the trading of numismatic items EgCollector 2011-06-10
coin show A bourse composed of coin dealers displaying their wares for sale and trade. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Coin Orientation When the rotation axis of the two dies of a coin is 180 degrees. That is, when a coin's obverse is facing the viewer "right way up" and the coin is held at top and bottom and turned over, the reverse now appears "upside down". The opposite is "medal orientation". EgCollector 2011-06-10
coin friction Term applied to the area resulting when coins rub together in rolls or bags and small amounts of metal are displaced. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Coin Dealer Newsletter Weekly periodical, commonly called the Greysheet, listing bid and ask prices for many United States coins. EgCollector 2011-06-10
coin collector An individual who accumulates coins in a systematic manner. EgCollector 2011-06-10
coin collection A systematic grouping of coins assembled for fun or profit. EgCollector 2011-06-10
coin Metal formed into a disk of standardized weight and stamped with a standard design to enable it to circulate as money authorized by a government body. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Cob The name given to the series of crudely-struck silver and gold coins, particularly from the Spanish-American mints from the 1500's to the 1700's. The name comes from the Spanish phrase "cabo de barre", cut off the bar, describing the method of preparing the blanks for these coins by slicing pieces off of a roughly cylindrical ingot of precious metal. The name can also be applied to any series of coins where the blanks were prepared in similar fashion, such as Russia; the word "ruble" also means EgCollector 2011-06-10
Closed collar Alternate form of close collar EgCollector 2011-06-10
close collar The edge device, sometimes called a collar die, that surrounds the lower die. Actually open and close collars are both closed collars - as opposed to segmented collars. The close collar imparts reeding or a smooth, plain edge. EgCollector 2011-06-10
clogged die A die that has grease or some other contaminant lodged in the recessed areas. Coins struck from such a die have diminished detail, sometimes completely missing. EgCollector 2011-06-10
clipped A term for an irregularly cut planchet. A clip can be straight or curved, depending upon where it was cut from the strip of metal. EgCollector 2011-06-10
clip Slang for a coin struck from a clipped planchet. EgCollector 2011-06-10
cleaned A term applied to a coin whose original surface has been removed. The effects may be slight or severe, depending on the method used. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Classic Head A depiction of Miss Liberty that recalls the "classic" look of a Roman or Greek athlete wearing a ribbon around the hair. The motif was first used on the John Reich designed struck from 1808 until 1814. The next year, the half cent was changed to this design. This head was also copied by William Kneass for the quarter eagle and half eagle designs first struck in 1834. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Classic Era The term describing the period from 1792 until 1964 when silver and gold coins of the United States were issued. (Gold coins, of course, were not minted after 1933.) EgCollector 2011-06-10
clashed dies Dies that have been damaged by striking each other without a planchet between them. Typically, this imparts part of the obverse image to the reverse die and vice versa. EgCollector 2011-06-10
clash marks The images of the dies seen on coins struck from clashed dies. The obverse will have images from the reverse and vice versa. EgCollector 2011-06-10
clad bag Usually applied to a one-thousand dollar bag of 40-percent silver half dollars although it also could apply to any bag of "sandwich" coins. EgCollector 2011-06-10
clad A term used to describe any of the modern "sandwich" coins that have layers of copper and nickel. (A pure copper core surrounded by a copper-nickel alloy.) Also used for the 40-percent silver half dollars. EgCollector 2011-06-10
CL Mintmark for the city of Genoa during the French occupation of that city, 1813-14. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Cistophorus A form of tetradrachm struck at several ancient Greek cities during Roman times, these were the largest Roman silver coins. Tariffed at three Roman denarii or four local drachms. The name derives from the sacred box of Dionysius, frequently depicted on these coins. EgCollector 2011-06-10
circulation A term applied to coins that have been spent in commerce and have received wear. EgCollector 2011-06-10
circulated A term applied to a coin that has wear, ranging from slight rubbing to heavy wear. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Chon The fractional currency unit in North Korea; there are 100 chon to the won. Coins denominated in chon have not been issued by the South, but the North has issued numerous NCLT coins denominate in chon. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Choice Uncirculated An Uncirculated coin grading MS-63 or MS-64. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Choice Unc Short for Choice Uncirculated. EgCollector 2011-06-10
choice An adjectival description applied to coin's grade, e.g., choice Uncirculated, choice Very Fine, etc. Used to describe an especially attractive example of a particular grade. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Chetrum Sometimes spelled "chhertum". The fractional currency unit of Bhutan; there are 100 chetrum to the ngultrum. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Charlotte Mint Located in North Carolina, the branch Mint at Charlotte operated from 1838-1861 and was closed due to the Civil War. The Charlotte mint struck only gold coins (mostly from local, native ore), all of which bear the "C" mintmark. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Chalkon The name of a bronze unit of currency in several ancient Greek city-states. In Athens, there were 8 chalkoi to the obol. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Chain Cent The popular name for the Flowing Hair Chain cent of 1793, the first coins struck in the newly occupied Mint building. EgCollector 2011-06-10
CH An abbreviation for "Choice." EgCollector 2011-06-10
Certified Coin Exchange The bid/ask coin trading and quotation system owned by the American Teleprocessing Company. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Certified Coin Dealer Newsletter The official name for the Bluesheet that lists bid/ask/market prices for third-party certified coins. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Centimo An equivalent of a cent used in a few Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries. The Andorran "centim" is a local variant on the spelling of this word. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Centime An equivalent of a cent used in French-speaking countries. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Centesimo An equivalent of a cent used in Italian-speaking countries. Also a variant used in some Spanish-speaking countries. The plural in Italian is "centesimi". EgCollector 2011-06-10
Centavo An equivalent of a cent used in Spanish or Portuguese-speaking countries. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Centas The fractional currency unit of Lithuania; there are 100 centu to the litas. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Cent A denomination valued at one-hundredth of the primary monetary unit, used by numerous countries as the minor unit in their decimal currency systems. The first country to issue cents was the United States, which has struck cents continuously since 1793 except for 1815. Other countries use variations on the word "cent", particularly Romance language countries in which the word "cent" means "one hundred". EgCollector 2011-06-10
census A compilation of the known specimens of a particular numismatic item. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Cedi Primary monetary unit of Ghana. Divided into 100 pesewas. In 2007 the "old cedi" was replaced by the "new cedi" at a rate of 10,000 old to the new. "Cedi" is the name for the cowry shell in the local Akan language. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Ce (mintmark) Mintmark for the city of Real de Catorce on Mexican coins. EgCollector 2011-06-10
CDN Short for Coin Dealer Newsletter EgCollector 2011-06-10
CCE Short for Certified Coin Exchange EgCollector 2011-06-10
CCDN Short for Certified Coin Dealer Newsletter EgCollector 2011-06-10
CC monogram Mintmark for the city of Besancon (French coins). The two "C"s are entwined back-to-back, making a curved "X" shape. EgCollector 2011-06-10
CC Mintmark used to signify coins struck at the Carson City, Nevada branch Mint. EgCollector 2011-06-10
catalog A printed listing of coins for sale either by auction or private treaty. As a verb, to write the description of the numismatic items offered. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Castaing machine A device invented by French engineer Jean Castaing, which added the edge lettering and devices to early U.S. coins before they were struck. This machine was used until close collar dies were introduced which applied the edge device in the striking process. EgCollector 2011-06-10
cast counterfeit A replication of a genuine coin usually created by making molds of the obverse and reverse, then casting base metal in the molds. A seam is usually visible on the edge unless it has been ground away. EgCollector 2011-06-10
cast blanks Planchets made by a mold method, rather than being cut from strips of metal. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Cash (Chinese coin) The traditional form of coinage in China. A cash coin is round, with a square hole, and normally four Chinese characters around the hole on the obverse. This form of coin was cast (not struck) from around 200 BC up until the early 1900's, with very little change in appearance over the centuries. Cash-style coins were also made in neighbouring countries such as Japan, Korea and Vietnam. EgCollector 2011-06-10
cartwheel 1. The pleasing effect seen on some coins when they are rotated in a good light source. The luster rotates around like the spokes of a wagon wheel. A term applied mainly to frosty Mint State coins, especially silver dollars, to describe their luster. Also, a slang term for a silver dollar. 2. Any large, heavy coin, such as the British pennies and twopences of 1797. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Carson City Mint Located in Nevada, this mint produced gold and silver coins from 1870-1893. It was closed from 1885-1889 due to a lack of funding. In 1893 the mint was permanently closed due to internal corruption. In 1895 it was found that several employees and prominent community officials were stealing bullion from the mint and this dashed all hopes of the mint ever reopening. Coins minted in Carson City are among the most popular branch-mint issues. This mint uses the "CC" mintmark. EgCollector 2011-06-10
carbon spot A spot seen mainly on copper and gold coins, though also occasionally found on U.S. nickel coins (which are 75 percent copper) and silver coins (which are 10 percent copper). Carbon spots are brown to black spots of oxidation that range from minor to severe - some so large and far advanced that the coin is not graded because of environmental damage. EgCollector 2011-06-10
capped die The term applied to an error in which a coin gets jammed in the coining press and remains for successive strikes, eventually forming a "cap" either on the upper or lower die. These are sometimes spectacular with the "cap" often many times taller than a normal coin. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Capped Bust A term describing any of the various incarnations of the head of Miss Liberty represented on early U.S. coins by a bust with a floppy cap. This design is credited to John Reich. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Cap Bust Alternate form of Capped Bust EgCollector 2011-06-10
Candareen An old Chinese unit of weight, now obsolete, equal to about 0.37 grams. There were 10 candareens to a mace. Chinese silver coins often report their weights in mace and candareens. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Canadian silver Slang for the silver coins of Canada. (Mainly struck in 80% fineness.) EgCollector 2011-06-10
Canadian Slang for the coins and other numismatic items of the Canada. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Cameo The term applied to coins, usually Proofs and prooflike coins, that have frosted devices and lettering that contrast with the fields. When this is deep the coins are said to be "black and white" cameos. Occasionally frosty coins have "cameo" devices though they obviously do not contrast as dramatically with the fields as the cameo devices of Proofs do. Specifically applied by PCGS to those 1950 and later Proofs that meet cameo standards (CAM). EgCollector 2011-06-10
CAM Short for Cameo. Also, PCGS grading suffix used for 1950 and later Proofs that meet cameo standards. EgCollector 2011-06-10
Calabash Australian (particularly Queensland) term for shinplaster, privately issued paper money used in rural Australia up to the early 1900's. EgCollector 2011-06-10
cabinet friction Slight disturbance seen on coins (usually on the obverse) that were stored in wooden cabinets used by early collectors to house their specimens. Often a soft cloth was used to wipe away dust, causing light hairlines or friction. EgCollector 2011-06-10
CA 1. Short for Cameo. 2. Mintmark for the city of Chihuahua on Spanish-Mexican 8 reales and Mexican coins. Some Royalist Chihuahua mint 8 reales were cast, with very crudely rendered mintmarks EgCollector 2011-06-10
C-Mint Term applied to the gold coins struck at the Charlotte, North Carolina branch Mint. This Mint only struck gold coins from its opening in late 1837 until its seizure by the Confederacy. (Those coins struck in late 1837 were dated 1838.) EgCollector 2011-06-10
C crowned (mintmark) Mintmark for the city of Cadiz on Spanish coins. EgCollector 2011-06-10
C Mintmark for the cities of: Charlotte, North Carolina (early US gold coins), Ottawa, Canada (British gold coins, Newfoundland coins), Saint Lo (French coins to 1657), Caen (French coins 1693-1771), Castelsarrasin (French coins during WWI and WWII), Frankfurt (German coins), Culiacan (Mexican coins), Cleve (Prussian coins to 1873). EgCollector 2011-06-10
Butut Smallest currency unit of Gambia, struck sinds 1971, there are coins known of 1, 5 and 10 butut. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bust dollar Slang for silver dollars struck from 1795-1803. (Those dated 1804 were first struck in 1834 for inclusion in Proof sets. Those Proofs dated 1801, 1802, and 1803 were also struck at dates later than indicated.) EgCollector 2011-06-09
burnt Slang for a coin that has been over-dipped to the point were the surfaces are dull and lackluster. EgCollector 2011-06-09
burnishing lines Lines resulting from burnishing, seen mainly on open-collar Proofs and almost never found on close-collar Proofs. These lines are incuse in the fields and go under lettering and devices. EgCollector 2011-06-09
burnishing A process by which the surfaces of a planchet or a coin are made to shine through rubbing or polishing. This term is used in two contexts - one positive, one negative. In a positive sense, Proof planchets are burnished before they are struck - a procedure done originally by rubbing wet sand across the surfaces to impart a mirror like finish. In a negative sense, the surfaces on repaired and altered coins sometimes are burnished by various methods. In some instances, a high-speed drill with some EgCollector 2011-06-09
Burnished This word has two distinct meanings in the world of numismatics, so you have to consider the context in order to discern the correct meaning. The word "burnished" can refer to specially prepared planchets (usually 18th century) that were used for specimen coins or other special coins of the era. These planchets were burnished at the Mint prior to the striking of the coin. As a second meaning, "burnished" can refer to any coin that was abrasively cleaned after it left the Mint, and the word is of EgCollector 2011-06-09
Burgundies guilder See Andries gulden. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bun Popular name for the bronze pennies of queen Victoria of England made from 1860 till 1894. EgCollector 2011-06-09
bullion coin A legal tender coin that trades at a slight premium to it's melt value. EgCollector 2011-06-09
bulged die A die that has clashed so many times that a small indentation is formed in it. Coins struck from this die have a "bulged" area. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Buffalo nickel Slang for the Indian Head nickel struck from 1913 to 1938. The animal depicted is an American Bison. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Budju Small silver coin from Algeria, from the 19th century first in 1808-1830, they had a value of 24 kopper mazunas. EgCollector 2011-06-09
buckled die A die that has "warped" in some way, possibly from excess clashing, and that produces coins which are slightly "bent." This may be more apparent on one side and occasionally apparent only on one side. EgCollector 2011-06-09
BU rolls Wrapped coins (usually in paper) in specific quantities for each denomination. Fifty for cents, forty for nickels, fifty for dimes, forty for quarters, and so on. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bu Japanese gold and silver coins minted in the period of 1573-1860. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Brown The term applied to a copper coin that no longer has the red color of copper. There are many "shades" of brown color - mahogany, chocolate, etc. (abbreviated as BN when used as part of a grade). EgCollector 2011-06-09
bronze An alloy of copper, tin and zinc, with copper the principal metal. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Broken Bank Notes Common term for private bank paper money issued in the USA prior to 1865. EgCollector 2011-06-09
brockage A brockage is a Mint error, an early capped die impression where a sharp incused image has been left on the next coin fed into the coining chamber. Most brockages are partial; full brockages are rare and the most desirable form of the error. BU EgCollector 2011-06-09
Broat Golden English coin from 1656, minted under Cromwell during the Commonwealth (1649-1660) with the weight of 9,1 grams 900/1000 fine. BU EgCollector 2011-06-09
Broadstrike Coin struck without a collar, thus when the coin is struck the metal is allowed to expand and increase in diameter. May be centered or uncentered, but must not have any missing lettering or design detail. BU EgCollector 2011-06-09
British Armed Forces Special Vouchers (BAFSV) Currency for use within the British military, equivalent to the US Military Payment Certificates (MPCs). BU EgCollector 2011-06-09
Brilliant Uncirculated A generic term applied to any coin that has not been in circulation. It often is applied to coins with little "brilliance" left, which properly should be described as simply Uncirculated. BU EgCollector 2011-06-09
brilliant A coin with full luster, unimpeded by toning, or impeded only by extremely light toning. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Breen-Gillio Numbering system base on the book on California fraction gold coins by Walter Breen and Ron Gillio titled California Pioneer Fraction Gold. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Breen letter A document, usually one page, written or typed by Walter Breen giving his opinion on a particular numismatic item. Before certification, this was the usual method employed by collectors and dealers desiring to sell an esoteric item such as a branch-mint Proof, early Proof, and so on. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Breen Book Slang for Walter Breen's magnum opus, Complete Encyclopedia of U.S. and Colonial Coins, published in 1988. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Breen Slang for the late Walter Breen. Often heard in context of Breen letter, Breen said, Breen wrote, and so on. A controversial personal life has dimmed the impact Breen had on numismatics. EgCollector 2011-06-09
breast feathers The central feathers seen on numerous eagle designs. Fully struck coins usually command a premium and the breast feathers are usually the highest point of the reverse. (They are the most deeply recessed area of the die, so metal sometimes does not completely fill the breast feather area, usually because of insufficient striking pressure. Incorrectly spaced or lapped dies will also cause "striking" weakness.) EgCollector 2011-06-09
Braspenning Silver coin of 2 and later 2 groot (great) first time issued by Jan zonder Vrees (Jan without Fear) 1404-1419 in Vlaanderen at 1409. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Brasher Dubloon Very rare American coin from 1787, made by Ephram Brasher. EgCollector 2011-06-09
branch mint One of the various subsidiary government facilities that struck, or still strikes, coins. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Braided Hair Style of hair on half cents and large cents from 1840 onward consisting of hair pull back into a tight bun with a braided hair cord. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bracteate A very thin coin, struck with only one die, with the main obverse design shown in mirror-image and incuse on the reverse. It looks similar to a brockage, but a bracteate was intentionally struck that way, nd is not a mint error. Bracteate pfennigs were common in mediaeval Germany. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Braamse A one side hammered coin of the province of Overijsel (the Netherlands), 64 braamse is one stuiver. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Br Belgium Franks, Belgium currency before the euro came in 2002. EgCollector 2011-06-09
boy wonder Slang name for a young coin dealer who bursts upon the numismatic scene and quickly becomes a top flight dealer. EgCollector 2011-06-09
bourse floor The physical area where a coin show takes place. EgCollector 2011-06-09
bourse Term synonymous with coin show. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Borotinki Small Polish coins of bad quality, made in 1649-1660, named after the Polish mint master Titus Livius Borotinki. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bonnet Piece Golden coin of Scotland, equal to a ducat, first issued in 1539, and it was the first Scottish coin known with a date on it. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bonk Emergency currency in the Dutch East Indies made from 1796 until 1818, made from Japanese copper bars with two dies on both sides, one side the year, and the other side the value. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Boliviano The primary currency unit of Bolivia; there are 100 centavos to the boliviano. The name of this unit (and the country) derives from Simon Bolivar, liberator and independence leader. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bolivar Currency of Venezuela, 1 Bolivar = 100 centimos, the name Bolivar comes from the south American freedom fighter Simon Bolivar (1783-1830). EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bogash Copper coin from the republic of Yemen, 40 Bogash is 1 Ryal. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Boeket tokens - Bouquet Sou Tokens from the bank of Montreal and Banque du Peuple, called so because the flowers on the front side. EgCollector 2011-06-09
body bag Slang term for a coin returned from a grading service in a plastic sleeve within a flip. The coin referred to is a no-grade example and was not graded or encapsulated. Coins are no-grades for a number of reasons, such as questionable authenticity, cleaning, polishing, damage, repair, and so on. EgCollector 2011-06-09
BN Short for Brown EgCollector 2011-06-09
BM The designation BM refers to "Branch Mint," meaning any US Mint other than Philadelphia. You will usually find this designation used to describe Branch Mint Proof coins, such as the 1879-O BM Proof Morgan dollar, 1893-CC BM Proof Morgan dollar, etc. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bluesheet Slang for the Certified Coin Dealer Newsletter. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bluebook A blue-cover, wholesale pricing book for United States coins issued on a yearly basis. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Blondeau Pierre, French coin novice that was one of the inventors of the screw press. EgCollector 2011-06-09
blended A term applied to an element of a coin (design, date, lettering, etc.) that is worn into another element or the surrounding field. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Blanc Name for silver coins from the 14th to 16th century with a high silver value. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Blacksmiths Forgeries of English copper coins of King George III, made in Canada, they got the name after a blacksmith who started to make them for own profit. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bfr Belgium Franks, Belgium currency before the euro came in 2002. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bit A colloquial name for a "real", one-eighth of a Spanish dollar. The name derives from the tendency to chop Spanish dollars into pieces when small change was scarce. The term survives in the common American expression "two bits", meaning a quarter dollar. The "bit" was also a minor currency unit used in the Danish West Indies (now the US Virgin Islands): there were 5 bits to a cent. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Birr The preferred name for the Ethopian dollar; divided into 100 santeem (or cents). EgCollector 2011-06-09
Binio A double Aureus from the Roman Empire, minted under Caracalla (198-217) EgCollector 2011-06-09
Billon An alloy of very low, and often indeterminate, silver content. Billon usually has a silver fineness of less than .500 fine. Thus, US "wartime nickels" (.350 fine) can be said to be made of billon. Many German and Dutch predecimal coins are made of billon, as were ancient Roman coins of the late Empire. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bigatus Silver coin of the Roman Empire with on the reverse a biga = kart with 2 horses, and the goddess of victory. The coins are minted from 217 until 64 BC. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bifrons This is the name for coin where 2 faces are on one side, for example the god Janus, on roman coins. EgCollector 2011-06-09
BIE A lincoln cent error caused by a die break between the "B" and the "E" in Liberty, giving the appearance of "BIE". EgCollector 2011-06-09
bidder number The number assigned by auction houses to the various participants in their auction. In the past, codes or nom de plumes were also commonplace at sales. EgCollector 2011-06-09
bidder Either the dealer issuing a quotation on one of the electronic trading systems or a participant in an auction. EgCollector 2011-06-09
bid The buying quotation of a coin either on a trading network, pricing newsletter, or other medium. EgCollector 2011-06-09
BI monogram Mintmark for the city of Birmingham, England, on Italian coins of the 1800's. The "B" and "I" are superimposed. EgCollector 2011-06-09
BG Gold Term sometimes applied to California fractional gold coins as encompassed in the Breen-Gillio reference work titled California Pioneer Fraction Gold, including additional discoveries. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bezemstuiver Also known as stuiver, a very popular coin in the Netherlands first issue was in 1619 till late 18th century. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Belga Currency counting unit used in Belgium, 1 belga = 5 francs, used from 1926 until 1946. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Beiersgulden Gold gulden with Johannes the Baptist on its front, issued bij Jan van Beieren (1420-1425) ruler of a part of Holland. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Begeer Dutch coin a medal cutter. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Becker Carl Wilhelm (1772-1830) a very well known coin falser, he reproduced antique coins in large sums, the coins look even too perfect and are very hard to define from the original. His working period was from 1815-1825, many of his dies are shown in the Berlin Coin and token cabinet. EgCollector 2011-06-09
beaded border Small, round devices around the edge of a coin, often seen on early U.S. coins. These were replaced by dentils. EgCollector 2011-06-09
BB Mintmarks for the Strasbourg mint. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bawbee A Scottish coin made of bullion, a very low silver coin, later replaced with copper. The value was 6 Scottish pennies or a half English penny. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Batz Silver coin from Switzerland with the value of 1/3th taler or 4 Kreutzer. EgCollector 2011-06-09
basining The process of polishing a die to impart a mirrored surface or to remove clash marks or other injuries from the die. EgCollector 2011-06-09
baseball cap coin Slang for a Pan-Pac commemorative gold dollar coin. The figure wears a cap similar to a baseball cap. EgCollector 2011-06-09
basal value The value base from which Dr. William H. Sheldon's 70-point grade/price system started; this lowest-grade price was one dollar for the 1794 large cent upon which he based his system. EgCollector 2011-06-09
basal state The condition of a coin that is identifiable only as to date mint mark (if present), and type; one-year-type coins may not have a date visible. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Barre Jean Jacques (1793-1855) die cutter for the coins of Louis Philippe and Lodewijk Napoleon. Also the engraver for the French notes of the Bank the France. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Barber coinage Common name for the Charles Barber designed Liberty Head dimes, quarters, and half dollars struck from 1892 until 1916 (1915 for the half dollar). EgCollector 2011-06-09
Banknote Paper money issued on the authority of a bank, as opposed to a private individual, business, or government department. The term was in common use as a generic word for all kinds of paper money, but this usage has now been phased out (especially in America) in favor of the word "currency". EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bank-wrapped rolls Rolls of coins that were wrapped at a Federal Reserve Bank from original Mint bags. Such rolls are often desirable to collectors because they have not been searched or "picked" by collectors or dealers. Sometimes abbreviated as OBW, for "original bank wrapped." EgCollector 2011-06-09
Balance half merk Silver coin from Scotland issued during the time of James VI. The reverse shows a sword and a balance. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Balancier French name for the screw press. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Balboa Currency of Panama, named after the explorer Vasco Nunez de Balboa (+/- 1475-1519) EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bajoire A token with two faces to each other, as picture on a coin this is often shown by the coins of Ferdinand and Isabella from Spain. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Baisa Currency of the Sultanate states of Oman and Muscat. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Baht Currency of Thailand 1 baht = 100 satang. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bagattino Northern Italian denier, and token, first from the 13th on to the 16th century. EgCollector 2011-06-09
bag toning Coloring acquired from the bag in which a coin was stored. The cloth bags in which coins were transported contained sulfur and other reactive chemicals. When stored in such bags for extended periods, the coins near and in contact with the cloth often acquired beautiful red, blue, yellow and other vibrant colors. Sometimes the pattern of the cloth is visible in the toning; other times, coins have crescent-shaped toning because another coin was covering part of the surface, preventing toning. Bag EgCollector 2011-06-09
bag A generic term for the cloth sacks in which coin are stored and transported. These came into use in the mid-nineteenth century and replaced wooden kegs for this purpose. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Bacchus Greek god of the wine, also known in Greece as Dionysos, on old roman coins with a whine cup, and a panther (cougar) on the coins of emperor Gallienus (253-268) only the cougar is shown, together with the text LIBERO P. CONS. AVG. only a few emperors chose the sign of Bacchus. EgCollector 2011-06-09
B Mintmark of the cities of: Rouen (French coins 1852-1857), Hannover (German coins 1866-1873), Vienna, Austria (German coins during the Nazi occupation of that city, 1938-1945), Bologna (Italian coins1861-1946), Brussels, Belgium (on Netherlands coins), Breslau (Prussian coins1750-1820), Bern (Swiss coins). EgCollector 2011-06-09
Wreath cent Common name for the second large cent type of 1793. Complaints about the Chain cent led to the redesign resulting in the Flowing Hair with wreath reverse type. EgCollector 2011-06-09
worn die A die that has lost detail from extended use. Dies were often used until they wore out or were excessively cracked or broke apart. Coins struck from worn dies often appear to be weakly struck but no amount of striking pressure will produce detail that does not exist. EgCollector 2011-06-09
World Coins Term applied to coins from countries other than the United States. EgCollector 2011-06-09
working hub A hub created from a master die and used to create the many working dies required for coinage. EgCollector 2011-06-09
working die A die prepared from a working hub and used to strike coins. EgCollector 2011-06-09
woodgrain Resulted from impurities in the alloy or concentrations of pure copper that did not properly blend with the 5% tin and zinc added to it. When these less than perfect ingots were rolled into strip, from which blanks would later be punched, the concentrations were flattened and stretched into the patterns seen on the finished coins. Invisible when first struck, these flaws appeared only after the coin was exposed to atmospheric agents that caused the copper concentrations to tone more quickly than EgCollector 2011-06-09
wonder coin Slang for a coin whose condition is particularly superb. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Won The primary currency unit in both Koreas; The South Korean won is a unitary currency, while in the North there are 100 chon to the won. The word is the Korean name for the Chinese "yuan". EgCollector 2011-06-09
with rays Alternate for of rays. EgCollector 2011-06-09
with motto Alternate form of motto. EgCollector 2011-06-09
with arrows and rays Alternate form of arrows and rays. EgCollector 2011-06-09
with arrows Alternate form of arrows at date. EgCollector 2011-06-09
wire rim Alternate form of wire edge. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Wire Money (Russian context) Early silver kopek and half-kopek coins issued by Russia in the 1600's, so called because the blanks were sliced cob-style off of a piece of silver wire. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Wire Money (Primitive money) A term sometimes used for the silver larin, a primitive money of the Indian Ocean islands. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Wire Money (British context) Early silver kopek and half-kopek coins issued by Russia in the 1600's, so called because the blanks were sliced cob-style off of a piece of EgCollector 2011-06-09
Wire Edge Ten Common name for the 1907-dated Wire Edge Indian Head eagle. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Wire Edge eagle The 1907 Indian Head eagle for which only 500 coins were struck. Technically, a pattern, this design featured a fine wire rim and surfaces unlike any other United States issue. The fields and the devices of the die were heavily polished leaving myriad die striations that transferred to the struck coins. With a combination of satiny and striated surfaces, these rare coins have a look of their own. Often, unknowledgeable numismatists will look at one of these specimens and declare it hairlined or EgCollector 2011-06-09
wire edge The thin, knife-like projection seen on some rims created when metal flows between the collar and the dies. Also, slang for the Wire Edge Indian Head eagle of 1907. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Wildcat Notes A subset of Broken Bank Notes, these are "banknotes" issued with little or no monetary backing, whose primary purpose was to defraud the holders of the notes. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Widow's Mite A small copper coin of ancient Judaea, more properly known as a lepton. The name derives from a passage in the bible where the coin is mentioned. EgCollector 2011-06-09
whizzing Term to describe the process of mechanically moving the metal of a lightly circulated coin to simulate luster. Usually accomplished by using a wire brush attachment on a high-speed drill. EgCollector 2011-06-09
wheel mark Synonymous with "counting machine mark." EgCollector 2011-06-09
West Point Mint The West Point Mint was originally opened in 1937 as a bullion depository and was officially designated by Congress as a Mint on March 31, 1988. This mint manufactures American Eagle uncirculated and proof coins, manufactures all sizes of the proof and uncirculated silver, gold and platinum American Eagle coins, manufactures commemorative coins that Congress mandates, and stores platinum, gold and silver bullion. This mint uses the "W" mintmark. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Wen The Chinese term for Chinese cash-style coins, issued in China up to the early 1900's. EgCollector 2011-06-09
weak strike A term used to describe a coin that does not show intended detail because of improper striking pressure or improperly aligned dies. EgCollector 2011-06-09
watery look A look seen on the surfaces of most close-collar Proof coins. Highly polished planchets and dies give the surfaces an almost "wavy" look-hence the term. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Watermark Area of varying thickness of paper on a piece of paper money, creating a pattern of light and dark areas visible when the note is held up to the light. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Washington quarter dollar The John Flanagan designed quarter dollar first struck in 1932 as a circulating commemorative coin. (This was to celebrate the two-hundredth anniversary of George Washington's birth.) It became a continuing series in 1934 and has been struck every year to 1998, albeit with a different reverse in 1976. In 1999, the obverse was redesigned and the State quarter series began to be struck. Each of the 50 State quarters will have a different reverse design with 5 new issues per year for 10 years. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Washington quarter Short for Washington quarter dollar. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Wartime nickel Those five-cent coins struck during World War II comprised of 35% silver, 9% manganese, and 56% copper. Tradition has been that nickel was needed for the war effort, hence the metallic change. However, recent research has shown that the boost to morale by having an intrinsic-value small denomination coin may have played an important part in the issuance of the Wartime nickel. EgCollector 2011-06-09
War nickel Short for Wartime nickel. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Walking Liberty half dollar Those half dollars struck from 1916 until 1947. The Walking Liberty design by A.A. Weinman undoubtedly was inspired by the popular Saint-Gaudens/Charles Barber Liberty Standing double eagle then current EgCollector 2011-06-09
Walking Liberty Common name for a Walking Liberty half dollar. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Walker Slang for a Walking Liberty half dollar. EgCollector 2011-06-09
W Mintmark for the city of Lille (French coins). EgCollector 2011-06-09
VG-8 This is for "Very Good" (the grade) and "8" (the numerical designation of the grade). A slight amount of design detail is still showing on the coin, such as a couple of letters in the word LIBERTY. VG-8 EgCollector 2011-06-09
VG-10 This is for "Very Good" (the grade) and "10" (the numerical designation of the grade). A higher grade (less worn) than the VG-8 coin. Design detail is still heavily worn but the major devices and lettering are clear. VG-10 EgCollector 2011-06-09
VF-35 This is for "Very Fine" (the grade) and "35" (the numerical designation of the grade). This grade used to be called VF/EF (or VF/XF) before numerical grading was accepted throughout the hobby. Devices are sharp and clear and up to 80% of the detail is in evidence. VF-35 EgCollector 2011-06-09
VF-30 This is for "Very Fine" (the grade) and "30" (the numerical designation of the grade). The devices are sharp with only a small amount of blending. Up to 75% of the original detail is evident. VF-30 EgCollector 2011-06-09
VF-25 This is for "Very Fine" (the grade) and "25" (the numerical designation of the grade). In this grade about 60% of the original detail is evident, with the major devices being clear and distinct. VF-25 EgCollector 2011-06-09
VF-20 This is for "Very Fine" (the grade) and "20" (the numerical designation of the grade). Wing feathers show most of their detail, lettering is readable but sometimes indistinct and some minor detail is sometimes separate but usually blended. VF-20 EgCollector 2011-06-09
Victoriatus Ancient Roman silver coin of the early Republic, equal to a Greek drachm. It was replaced by the denarius in 170 BC. So named because of the figure of Victory on the reverse. EgCollector 2011-06-09
vest pocket dealer A part-time coin merchant. The term originated with those individuals who roamed the bourse floor ready to whip out of their vests a small plastic coin binder containing coins in two-by-two cardboard holders. Today, not one-in-a-thousand individuals wears a vest, but the moniker stuck. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Very Good The term corresponding to the grades VG-8 and VG-10. In these grades, between Good and Fine, a coin has slightly more detail than in Good, usually with full rims except on certain series such as Buffalo nickels. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Very Fine The term corresponding to the grades VF-20, 25, 30, and 35. This has the broadest range of any circulated grade, with nearly full detail on some VF-35 coins and less than half on some VF-20 specimens. EgCollector 2011-06-09
verifier The grader at PCGS who looks at graded coins and decides whether the indicated grade is correct. He may tag a coin to be looked at again by the graders. EgCollector 2011-06-09
verdigris A green or greenish-blue pigment resulting from the action of acetic acid on copper and consisting of one or more basic copper acetates. EgCollector 2011-06-09
VDB Short for 1909 VDB Lincoln Head cent. Controversy arose over having a non-Mint engraver's initials on a coin, so Victor D. Brenner's initials were removed. VDB EgCollector 2011-06-09
Vatu The currency unit of Vanuatu, the only truly unitary currency system in the world. The vatu has no theoretical or historic fractions or multiples, though locals often call 100 vatu a "tala" or dollar. EgCollector 2011-06-09
variety A coin of the same date and basic design as another but with slight differences. PCGS recognizes all major varieties while there are thousands of minor varieties, most of which have significance only to specialists of the particular series. After hubbed dies, introduced in the 1840s, varieties are mainly variations in date and mintmark size and placement. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Van Allen-Mallis The Morgan and Peace dollar variety book authors. First published in 1971, it was updated and reprinted in 1998. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Van The Vietnamese term for Chinese cash style copper coins. The last cash coins in the world were van made in Vietnam in 1946. EgCollector 2011-06-09
VAM number Unique number assigned to each die combination of Morgan and Peace dollar known to the authors of The Complete Catalog and Encyclopedia of United States Morgan and Peace Silver Dollars. Called VAM because of the authors Leroy Van Allen and A. George Mallis. EgCollector 2011-06-09
V-nickel Common name for the Liberty Head five-cent coins struck from 1883 through 1912. (The 1913 was struck clandestinely and is not listed in Mint reports.) EgCollector 2011-06-09
V Mintmark for the cities of: Troyes (French coins), Valencia (Spanish coins). EgCollector 2011-06-09
Used Term to describe a coin that has light to heavy wear or circulation. EgCollector 2011-06-09
URS Short for Universal Rarity Scale. URS EgCollector 2011-06-09
Upsetting Mill A machine that raises the outer rim on a planchet prior to striking. Upsetting ensures that the rims are properly formed during striking. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Upset A mint error which occurs when a coin has been struck with rotated dies. The difference in angle between an upset coin and a "normal" one is measured in degrees. An angle of less than 15 degrees is not considered to be a major mint error. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Universal Rarity Scale A collectibles rarity information scale developed in 1998 by 21 major collectibles experts in order to both define rarity within their individual markets and allow collectors and dealers from different collectibles markets to more easily communicate with one another. The Universal Rarity Scale is a 10 point scale. The least rare collectible items are those where more than 10,000 examples are estimated to exist. These items are designated "UR1" and are described as "readily available." The rarest EgCollector 2011-06-09
Unitary A monetary system where the primary monetary unit has no fractional monetary units. The Vanuatu vatu is an excellent example. The Japanese yen and the French Pacific franc are also de facto unitary systems, although they have theoretical fractional units which have long been rendered obsolete by inflation. EgCollector 2011-06-09
underbidder The individual or entity that executed the bid preceding the winning bid. Close, but no cigar. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Uncirculated Term to indicate a coin or numismatic item that has never been in circulation, a coin without wear. See "Brilliant Uncirculated," "Mint State," and "new." EgCollector 2011-06-09
Uncia The smallest denomination ancient Roman coin. The name is Latin for "ounce"; originally, the uncia weighed 1 Roman ounce of copper. There were 12 uncia to the as. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Unc Short for uncirculated. Unc EgCollector 2011-06-09
ultra rarity Term used for a coin or other numismatic item that is represented by only a few examples. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Ultra High Relief Alternate name for the Extremely High Relief. EgCollector 2011-06-09
U Mintmark for the city of Turin on French coins, during the occupation of northern Italy 1812-1813. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Quinarius A small ancient Roman silver coin, worth half a denarius; the name means "fiver". A gold coin the same size as a silver quinarius, worth half an aureus, is called a "gold quinarius". EgCollector 2011-06-09
Quetzal The primary currency unit of Guatemala; there are 100 centavos to the quetzal. Named after a tropical bird, revered by the native Maya peoples. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Quarter Eagle Correct terminology for a two-and-one-half dollar gold coin. This denomination, two and one half dollars or one fourth of an eagle, was first struck in 1796, struck sporadically thereafter, and discontinued in 1929. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Quarter Short for a coin of the quarter dollar denomination. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Quadrans The smallest copper coin issued by the Roman Empire, though in the early Republic, even smaller coins were issued. Worth a quarter of an as, or 1/64th of a denarius. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Qirsh The Arabic spelling of the Ottoman Turkish unit, the kurush. The name (or a variant thereof) is used in several Middle Eastern countries, as either a fractional or secondary currency unit. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Qindarke The fractional currency unit of Albania; there are 100 qindarka to the lek. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Qapik The fractional currency unit of Azerbaijan; there are 100 qapik to the manat. The name derives from the Russian "kopek". EgCollector 2011-06-09
Q Mintmark for the cities of: Narbonne (French coins pre-1600), Perpignan (French coins from 1711). EgCollector 2011-06-09
Kyat The primary monetary unit of Burma/Myanmar; there are 100 pyas to a kyat. The word is pronounced like "chat" or "chut". EgCollector 2011-06-09
Kwanza The primary monetary unit of Angola; there are 100 lwei to the kwanza. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Kwacha The primary monetary unit of Malawi and Zambia. In Malawi it is equal to 100 tambala; while in Zambia, 100 ngwee. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Kurus A fractional currency unit of Turkey; there are 100 kurus to a lira. The name derives from the old Ottoman Empire currency unit, the kurush. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Kuna The primary currency unit of Croatia; there are 100 lipa to the kuna. The kuna is the Croatian name for the marten, an animal whose fur was a valuable commodity in the area. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Krugerrand A gold bullion coin of South Africa. It is composed of .9167 fine gold. Exists in 1-ounce, half-ounce, quarter-ounce and tenth-ounce sizes. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Kroon The primary currency unit of Estonia; there are 100 senti to the kroon. An earlier currency of Estonia was based on 100 marks to the kroon. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Krone The primary currency unit of Denmark; there are 100 ore to a krone. Also the primary currency unit of Norway, and the Danish territory of Greenland. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Krona The primary currency unit of Sweden; there are 100 ore to a krona. Also the preferred spelling of the Danish "krone" on the Danish dependency of the Faeroe Islands, and the primary currency unit of Iceland, where it is divided into 100 aurar. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Kriegsgeld German for "war money". A category of notgeld issued during WWI, in the form of metal tokens and paper money. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Kreuzer Also spelled "kreutzer" and (in Hungary) "krajczar". Minor predecimal currency unit of numerous states in what is now Germany, Poland, Austria and Switzerland. It was normally either a small billon coin or larger, copper coin. It was also the fractional curency unit of Austro-Hungary from 1857 to 1892. The name derives from the cross frequently shown on mediaeval silver pennies. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Koruna The primary currency unit of Czechoslovakia, and the successor states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. There are 100 haleru (Slovak: halierov) to the koruna. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Kopek Also spelled "kopeck", the fractional currency unit of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation and several other former Soviet republics. The name, the Russian word for "spear", derives from a small silver coin issued in the 1600's which showed a horseman carrying a spear. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Kobo The theoretical fractional currency unit of Nigeria. There would be 100 kobo to a naira, but inflation has rendered the kobo valueless. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Knife Money Form of primitive currency in China, issued at tthe same time as Spade Money (c. 800-200 BC), in the form of cast bronze imitation knives. EgCollector 2011-06-09
knife edge Slang for wire edge. EgCollector 2011-06-09
KN Mintmark for the King's Norton private mint in Birmingham, England, seen on British and British Colonial coins. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Kip The primary monetary unit of Laos; there are 100 att to the kip. The name derives from the Lao word for a silver ingot. EgCollector 2011-06-09
King The number one coin. The 1804 dollar was referred to as the "King of Coins" in an 1885 auction catalogue. Since then, the word "King" has come to mean the most important coin of a particular series. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Kina The primary currency unit of Papua New Guinea; there are 100 toea to the kina. The name derives from a local name for a kind of pearlescent oyster shell, used as traditional money in the area. EgCollector 2011-06-09
killer Slang term for outstanding. (i.e. That 1880-S silver dollar has killer luster.) EgCollector 2011-06-09
Khoums A minor currency unit of Mauretania, equivalent to the old French colonial franc and worth 1/5th of an ouguiya. The name is the Arabic word for "fifth". It was only struck during the transitional period when Mauretania converted from French colonial francs to the ouguiya. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Kharshapana The name given to several series of square or rectangular-shaped coins from ancient India, particularly the Mauryan Empire silver coinage and the Sunga Empire copper coinage. EgCollector 2011-06-09
K Mintmark for the cities of: Bordeaux (French coins). EgCollector 2011-06-09
jugate When two or more portraits appear side by side, as on the William and Mary coinage of Great Britain or the Alabama Centennial half dollar. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Johanna Also spelled "Johannes". A predecimal gold coin of Portugal and Portuguese Brazil, issued in the 1700's and 1800's, equivalent to the Spanish 4 escudos and tariffed at 6400 reis. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Jital A series of silver and billon coins, issued by Hindu and Muslim states in Central Asia and northern India from around 800 AD to after 1200 AD. Originally featuring a Hindu bull on one side and a king on horseback on the other, the design degraded with time, becoming more and more abstract. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Jiao A secondary currency unit of the People's Republic of China, worth 10 fen or 1/10th of a renminbi yuan. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Jew Pfennig A nickname applied to a series of evasions and tokens issued from the German city of Frankfurt in the late 1700's and early 1800's. These tokens resemble German States minor coins, but often bear fictitious denominations and coats of arms. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Jeton A French token-like counter used on a counting board. The German equivalent is "rechenpfennig". EgCollector 2011-06-09
Jefferson nickel The Felix Schlag designed five-cent coin first struck from 1938 to date. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Japanese Invasion Money Paper money issued during WWII for use in the various countries conquered by the Japanese, intended for use by the subjugated civilian population. Notes were made along much the same style and design, for Burma, Malaya, Oceania (New Guinea and the Solomon Islands), the Philippines, and Shonan (the Japanese name for Indonesia). JIM EgCollector 2011-06-09
J Mintmark for the cities of: Hamburg (German coins), Jubia (Spanish coins). EgCollector 2011-06-09
Hyperpyron A gold coin of the late Byzantine Empire. It's name derives from the Latin words for "super fired", referring to the high fineness of the gold. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Hyperinflation A period when a country's economy collapses. Coins become obsolete and paper money is printed with ever more increasing denominations, which only circulate briefly before they in turn become obsolete. EgCollector 2011-06-09
hub Minting term for the steel device from which a die is produced. The hub is produced with the aid of a portrait lathe or reducing machine and bears a "positive" image of the coin's design – that is, it shows the design as it will appear on the coin itself. The image on the die is "negative" – a mirror image of the design. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Hryvnia Sometimes spelled "gryvnia", the primary monetary unit of the Ukraine. The name derives from an old monetary unit used by the mediaeval Kievan 'Rus, and means "ingot". The Russian 10 kopek coin was colloquially known as a "grivennik", a word of similar derivation. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Holey Dollar Term used to describe a Spanish colonial 8 reales (or other dollar-sized coin) that had been mutilated by having a circular piece punched out of the centre, leaving a ring-shaped coin. The punched-out piece is often known as a "dump". The British colonies of New South Wales (Australia) and Prince Edward Island (Canada) issued holey dollars in the early 1800's. EgCollector 2011-06-09
holder toning Any toning acquired by a coin as a result of storage in a holder. Mainly refers to toning seen on coins stored in Wayte Raymond-type cardboard holders which contained sulfur and other reactive chemicals. Sometimes vibrant, spectacular reds, greens, blues, yellows, and other colors are seen on coins stored in these holders. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Hog Money (sometimes spelled Hogge Money) Coinage made for use on the Sommer Islands, now known as Bermuda, in the early 1600's. These were the first coins made for a British colony in North America. The name derives from the main design element, a feral pig. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Hobo nickel An Indian Head (Buffalo) nickel which has been engraved with a portrait of a hobo or other character, often by a hobo. These are popular with some collectors and some are so distinctive that they have been attributed to specific "hoboes." EgCollector 2011-06-09
hoarder An individual who amasses a quantity of a numismatic item(s). EgCollector 2011-06-09
hoard coin A coin that exists, or existed, in a quantity held by an individual, organization, etc. Examples include Stone Mountain half dollars still held by the Daughters of the Confederacy, the superb group of 1857 quarters that surfaced in the 1970s, and so on. EgCollector 2011-06-09
hoard A group of coins held for either numismatic or monetary reasons. A numismatic hoard example would be the hoard of Little Orphan Annie dimes (1844). A monetary hoard example would be the 100,000 plus coins in the Economite, Pennsylvania hoard of the nineteen century. That hoard consisted mainly of half dollars. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Ho (mintmark) Mintmark for the city of Hermosillo on Mexican coins. EgCollector 2011-06-09
High Relief The Saint-Gaudens inspired effort of Charles Barber to reduce the Extremely High Relief down to a coin with acceptable striking qualities. After 11,250 coins, this effort was abandoned. However, these were released and quickly became one of the most popular coins of all time. EgCollector 2011-06-09
high end A term applied to any coin at the upper end of a particular grade. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Hexagram A silver coin of the late Byzantine Empire. It's name derives from it's weight, "6 grams". EgCollector 2011-06-09
Heraldic Eagle Also called the large eagle, this emblem of Liberty resembles the eagles of heraldry, thus its acquired name. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Hemiobol A tiny ancient Greek silver coin, worth half an obol. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Hemidrachm A small ancient Greek silver coin, worth half a drachm. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Heller A minor currency unit of Austro-Hungary, German East Africa, and some German states. The name derives from the city of Hall, where it was first issued. EgCollector 2011-06-09
haze A cloudy film, original or added, seen on both business-strike coins and Proofs. This film can range from a light, nearly clear covering with little effect on the grade to a heavy, opaque layer that might prevent the coin from being graded. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Hao A secondary currency unit of Vietnam, worth 10 xu or 1/10th of a dong. EgCollector 2011-06-09
hammer die The upper die, usually the obverse – although on some issues with striking problems, the reverse was employed as the upper die. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Half rolls At times rolls were issued with one half the number of coins in a roll that we consider to be normal today. For instance, Liberty nickels (1883-1912) were often issued with 20 coins in the roll (face value one dollar). EgCollector 2011-06-09
Half Eagle Literally, half the value of an Eagle. The Eagle was defined by the Mint Act of 1792 as equal to ten silver dollars. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Half Dollar The denomination first struck in 1794 that is still struck today. EgCollector 2011-06-09
half disme The original spelling of half dime. The first United States regular issue was the 1792 half disme supposedly struck in John Harper's basement with the newly acquired Mint presses. EgCollector 2011-06-09
half cent The lowest-value coin denomination ever issued by the United States, representing one-two hundredth of a dollar. Half cents were struck from 1793 until the series was discontinued in 1857. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Half Slang for half dollar. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Haler The minor currency unit of Czechoslovakia, and the successor states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia (where it is spelled "halier". In all cases, worth 1/100th of a koruna. Name derives from the old German and Austro-Hungarian monetary unit, the heller. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Halala The minor currency unit of Saudi Arabia, 1/100th of a riyal. Name derives from the Arabic word for "lawful". EgCollector 2011-06-09
hairlines Fine cleaning lines found mainly in the fields of Proof coins, although they sometimes are found across an entire Proof coin as well as on business strikes. EgCollector 2011-06-09
hair The area of a coin that represents hair and may be an important grading aspect. (i.e. The hair above the ear on a Morgan dollar is critical to the strike.) EgCollector 2011-06-09
H/T The shorthand abbreviation for a roll of coins where one end of the roll shows the obverse (heads) of the coin and the other end of the roll shows the reverse (tails). EgCollector 2011-06-09
H/H The shorthand abbreviation for a roll of coins where both ends of the roll shows the obverse (heads) of the coin. EgCollector 2011-06-09
H Mintmark for the cities of: La Rochelle (French coins), Darmstadt (German coins), Heaton Mint, Birmingham, England (coins of Great Britain, British colonies, Egypt, Italy). EgCollector 2011-06-09
Avo Currency of Macao, a portugese colony in the east indies, and at East Timor, (Indonesia) 100 avo = 1 pataca EgCollector 2011-06-09
authentication The process of determining the genuineness of a coin or other numismatic item. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Aureus An ancient Roman gold coin, tariffed at 25 denarii or 100 sestertii. Replaced by the solidus in 309 AD. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Augustalis Golden coin from Kaiser Friedrich II as king of sicily minted in 1231 at Messina and Brindisi with a weight of 5,24 grams. EgCollector 2011-06-09
auction An offering of coins for sale where the buyer must bid against other potential buyers, as opposed to ordering from a catalog, price list, or advertisement at a set price. EgCollector 2011-06-09
AU-58 This is for "About Uncirculated" (the grade) and "58" (the numerical designation of that grade). Also called "Almost Uncirculated-58." There is the slightest wear on the high points, even though it may be necessary to tilt the coin towards the light source to see the friction. In many cases the reverse of an AU58 coin will be fully Mint State. Less than 10% of the surface area will show luster breaks. The grade of "Borderline Unc" equates to AU58. AU-58 EgCollector 2011-06-09
AU-55 This is for "About Uncirculated" (the grade) and "55" (the numerical designation of that grade). Also called "Almost Uncirculated-55." There is slight wear on the high points with minor friction in the fields. Luster can range from almost nonexistent to virtually full, but it will be missing from the high points. The grade of "Choice AU" equates to AU55. AU-55 EgCollector 2011-06-09
AU-53 This is for "About Uncirculated" (the grade) and "53" (the numerical designation of that grade). Also called "Almost Uncirculated-53." There is obvious wear on the high points with light friction covering 50-75% of the fields. There are noticeable luster breaks, with most of the luster still intact in the protected areas. AU-53 EgCollector 2011-06-09
AU-50 This is for "About Uncirculated" (the grade) and "50" (the numerical designation of that grade). Also called "Almost Uncirculated-50." This is the lowest of the four AU grades, with the others being AU53, AU55, and AU58. Between 50% and 100% of the surfaces will exhibit luster disturbances, and perhaps the only luster still in evidence will be in the protected areas. The high points of the coin will have wear that is easily visible to the naked eye. AU-50 EgCollector 2011-06-09
Attribution The next step beyond "identification", it is the process of fully describing and classifying the particular type and variety of coin. For example, a large American silver coin would be identified as a "Morgan Dollar 1886 P", but attributed as a "VAM-17 doubled arrows" variety. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Attributes The elements that make up a coin's grade. The main ones are marks (hairlines for Proofs), luster, strike, and eye appeal. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Att Copper coin minted in Thailand from 1874-1905. EgCollector 2011-06-09
ATB Acronym for America the Beautiful refering to the US quarter series started in 2010. Also referred to as National Park quarters. ATB EgCollector 2011-06-09
At Currency of Laos. 100 At = 1 Kip. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Assignat French paper money from the late 1700's; one of the earliest occasions of hyperinflation caused by overissue of notes. EgCollector 2011-06-09
ask The selling quotation of a coin either on a trading network, pricing newsletter, or other medium. EgCollector 2011-06-09
As Roman coin unit that is related to the As Libra, a coin that is used a verry long time in the roman empire. EgCollector 2011-06-09
artificial toning Coloring added to the surface of a coin by chemicals and/or heat. Many different methods have been employed over the years. EgCollector 2011-06-09
arrows at date Term referring to the arrows to the left and right of the date, added to the dies to indicate a weight increase or decrease. EgCollector 2011-06-09
arrows and rays Term referring to the quarters and half dollars of 1853. The rays were removed in 1854 because of striking difficulties presented by the busy design. EgCollector 2011-06-09
arrows Design element usually found in the left (viewer's right) claw of the eagle seen on many United States coins. After 1807, there usually were three arrows while prior to that time the bundle consisted of numerous ones. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Ariary The currency unit of Madagascar. It is a unitary currency, having no fractional units except for the transitional "iraimbilanja", worth 1/5th of an ariary or 1 old French colonial franc. The name derives from a local word meaning a silver dollar. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Argentino Golden coin from Argentina with the value of 5 pesos, struck from 1881-1889 and 1896. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Argenteus Silver roman coin who was introduced by the Emperor Diocletian in 294 AD and struck until 310 AD. The weight is 3.4 grams EgCollector 2011-06-09
Aqueduct (mintmark) Mintmark for the city of Segovia on Spanish coins, normally resembling a curved-top "M" with a second, smaller flat-top "M" above it. The mark is taken from the old Roman aqueduct that forms a prominent landmark in the city. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Apfelgulden Apfelgulder, golden guilder from the Rhineland from the 15th and 16th century named for the cross and apple on its front. EgCollector 2011-06-09
anvil die The lower die, usually the reverse – although on some issues with striking problems, the obverse was employed as the lower die. Because of the physics of minting, the fixed lower-die impression is slightly better struck than the upper-die impression. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Anvil The mint mark of the Dutch mint master Ir. J. de Jong, mint master of the Royal Dutch mint from 1980-1987. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Antoninianus A roman coin first from silver, later a mix of silver and other materials issued by the roman emperor Marinus Aurelius Antonius also known as Caracalla in 214 AD it was a double dinarius between 4.7 and 5.3 grams. The coin is easy to recognize by the radiate crown around the head of the emperor. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Anna Name for the old Indian coins, in later times it went to 1/16 th of a rupee. 1 Anna = 4 pysas or 12 pie. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Anchor money opular name for English coins struck for the use on Mauritius, in Canada West Indies and Ceylon. The inscription is COLONIR: BRITAIN: MONET: EgCollector 2011-06-09
Angelot French coin similar like the angel, minted in 1427 at mint houses in Paris, Saint-L and Le Mans. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Angelet or half angel This coin was in circulation till 1619. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Angel Very nice golden coins struck by Edward the 4th of England, on the front side Michal fighting the dragon, struck sinds 1465. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Andreasducat Russian golden coins struck during the period of Peter the Great 1682-1725. Also struck during the time of Elizabeth I from Russia during 1741-1762. EgCollector 2011-06-09
ancients General term for coins of the world struck circa 600 B.C. to circa 450 A.D. EgCollector 2011-06-09
American Numismatic Association A non-profit numismatic organization founded in 1888 for the advancement of numismatics. ANA EgCollector 2011-06-09
Amulet(ten) Coins or tokens who have believed to have a magical value, very known in china and related territories. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Ambrosino Milanese (Italy) golden and silver coins struck in a short period of the Ambrosian republic from 1302-1310. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Amani Golden coin from Afghanistan, struck between 1919 and 1936 in weight and gold same as the British pound, there are also , 2 and 5 Amani pieces. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Altun A Turkish coin first time issued in 1454 during the ruling of Muhammad II EgCollector 2011-06-09
Almost Uncirculated The grades AU50, 53, 55, and 58. A coin that on first glance appears Uncirculated but upon closer inspection has slight friction or rub. AU EgCollector 2011-06-09
Albus In the Rhine states in Germany well known name for coins of almost pure silver from the 14th till the 18th century. The coin system in the Rein states was based on this type until the Thaler came, and took over the system. EgCollector 2011-06-09
album slide marks Lines, usually parallel, imparted to the surface of a coin by the plastic "slide" of an album. EgCollector 2011-06-09
album friction Similar to album slide marks, though the friction may be only slight rubbing on the high points. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Albertusdaalder Also known as patagon, coin struck for the south Netherlands first struck in 1612. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Aka Small golden coin from Ceylon (Sri Lanka) made in the 9th and 10th century on the front is the goddess Lakshmi with a flower vase. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Actual Gold Weight This refers to the amount of pure gold in a coin, medal or bar. Any alloys are part of the gross weight of a gold coin, but not part of the AGW. AGW EgCollector 2011-06-09
AG-3 This is for "About Good" (the grade) and "3" (the corresponding numerical designation). Most of the lettering on the coin is readable, but there is moderately heavy wear into the rims. This grade is frequently found on Barber coins where the obverse is fully Good (or better) but the reverse is heavily worn. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Afghani Coin nomination from Afghanistan, used sinds 1926. From 1926-1931 in silver, after that in nickel steel struck. EgCollector 2011-06-09
abrasions Area(s) of a coin where a foreign object or another coin has displaced metal in an abraded fashion. Similar to a bag mark but usually on the high points or open fields and not as deep or acute as the former. EgCollector 2011-06-09
About Uncirculated Alternate of Almost Uncirculated. EgCollector 2011-06-09
About Good The grade AG-3. The grade of a coin that falls short of Good. Only the main features of the coin are present in this grade. Peripheral lettering, date, stars, etc. sometimes are partially worn away. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Abidi Coin from India, value of a half rupee from Mysore, a state in the south of India, this coin was issued in 1786, before the English occupied this state. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Abbasi A Persian silver coin named at the Sjah of Persia Abbas I the great, ruler from 1587-1629, the coin is also known as rial. EgCollector 2011-06-09
Abacus Greek for table or plate used for counting. EgCollector 2011-06-09
AA Mintmarks for the French coins minted in Metz from the period 1662-1793. EgCollector 2011-06-09
A Mintmark of the cities of: Vienna (Austrian coins) Paris (French coins), Berlin (German, East German and Prussian coins), Alamos (Mexican coins). EgCollector 2011-06-09
Chasing Process by which forgers heat the surface of a coin in order to reshape the metal to create a mint mark on a coin. mint mark Nicholas 2011-06-04
Chapman proof In 1921 the U.S. mint made a small number of proof coins of the Morgan dollar for collector, Henry Chapman. Chapman proof coins have 17 berries in the wreath. Zerbe and Chapman proofs are significant as they were the only proof coins issued for the 1921 Morgan dollar. proof Zerbe proof Nicholas 2011-06-04
Zerbe proof In 1921 the U.S. mint made a small number of proof coins of the Morgan dollar for collector and former ANA president, Farran Zerbe. All Zerbe proofs have a faint die scratch extending from the second U in UNUM to the border. Zerbe and Chapman proofs are significant as they were the only proof coins issued for the 1921 Morgan dollar. proof ANA Chapman proof Nicholas 2011-06-04
mint mark Letters, monograms or symbols engraved on a coin during production. Mint marks are used to indicate where a coin was made. Examples include D for Denver on United States coins. Denmark uses a heart for coins minted in Copenhagen. Mexico uses the Mo monogram for Mexico City. mint Nicholas 2011-05-30
mint A place where coins are created. Many coins will have a mint mark indicating where the coin was minted. mint mark Nicholas 2011-05-30
round tuit A token used to persuade an individual to perform a task. For example, Nicholas will check this glossary for errors when he gets a round tuit. token Nicholas 2011-05-30
legend Lettering on a coin other than the denomination or nation which issued it motto Nicholas 2011-05-30
flan British term for a planchet, the piece of metal on which a coin design is stamped. blank planchet Nicholas 2011-05-30
face value The monetary worth of a coin at the time of it's issue. This is the denomination of the coin. Nicholas 2011-05-30
die An engraved stamp used for impressing a design (images, value and mottoes) upon a blank piece of metal to make a coin. One die is used for each side of a coin. Nicholas 2011-05-30
restrike A coin minted using the same dies but at a later date. frozen die Nicholas 2011-05-30
pattern A prototype or trial of a new coin. Nicholas 2011-05-30
exonumia Pertaining to tokens, medals and other non-monetary coin-like objects. Exonumia is considered a branch of numismatics. numismatics Nicholas 2011-05-30
field The flat background on a coin, medal or token. Nicholas 2011-05-30
mintage Quantity of coins produced. For example, the 1 rupee coin from Seychelles has a total mintage of 2,000,000 coins in 1982. Nicholas 2011-05-30
cull A coin in awful condition. Nicholas 2011-05-30
bust A portrait on a coin, usually including the head, neck and upper shoulders. Nicholas 2011-05-30
business strike A coin intended for general circulation. Nicholas 2011-05-30
bi-metallic A coin made of two metals(or 2 different metal alloys) bonded together. An example from our database can be seen here: 2 Pound Coin alloy Nicholas 2011-05-30
altered The intentional modification of a coin after it has been minted. colorized toning Nicholas 2011-05-30
grading company Companies that examine coins and grade them, usually with the Sheldon scale. grade Sheldon scale NGC PCGS ANACS Nicholas 2011-05-30
population Number of coins known to exist. This number is not necessarily the total minted as coins may have been melted or otherwise destroyed over time. Grading companies will often have their own populations for each grade of a coin. grading company Nicholas 2011-05-30
R# (R1-R8) Rarity scale used to rank coins with a very small population. R-1 Common over 1251 known R-2 Uncommon 501-1250 known R-3 Scarce 201-500 known R-4 Very Scarce 76-200 known R-5 Rare 31-75 known R-6 Very Rare 13-30 known R-7 Extremely rare 4-12 known R-8 Unique or Nearly So 1-3 known population Nicholas 2011-05-30
KM# Krause and Mishler number. Used in the various Standard Catalog of World Coins books from Krause Publications. Nicholas 2011-05-30
PVC Polyvinyl Chloride. An ingredient found in soft plastic "flip" coin holders which will damage coins over time. Nicholas 2011-05-30
intrinsic The melt value of a coin. This value is based on the current market for the metals used to make the coin. If a coin is worth more than the materials minted, that is a numismatic value. Nicholas 2011-05-30
bullion value A coin's bullion value is the value of the metal used to make the coin. This is also known as a coin's intrinsic worth. intrinsic Nicholas 2011-05-30
bullion Bullion usually refers to precious metals such as gold or silver before it has been minted into coins. bullion value Nicholas 2011-05-30
DMPL Deep Mirror Proof Like coin. It's a business strike with a deep mirrored planchet. business strike planchet proof Nicholas 2011-05-30
tuppence A historical slang term used in the United Kingdom to refer to two pence, British silver coins. Nicholas 2011-05-18
blank Another name for a planchet, the unused piece of metal that is later stamped and turned into a coin. planchet Nicholas 2011-02-21
annealing Annealing is the process of heating a planchet in order to make the metal more malleable. Coin planchets are annealed to make the stamping process easier during production. planchet Nicholas 2011-02-21
planchet The piece of metal on which a coin design is stamped. Also known as a "blank" as the piece of metal is blank when it is stamped. blank Nicholas 2011-02-21
alloy Two or more metals combined. "Cupronickel" is an alloy of copper and nickel. Nicholas 2011-02-21
frozen A frozen date is when a date is placed on a coin and yet the coin is minted for more than one year after yet the date remains unchanged. An example of this is our October 2008 Coin of the Month, the 1 Ducat from Austria dated 1915. Another very popular example is Austria's Maria Theresa 1 Thaler from 1780. This coin is still minted with the 1780 date. Nicholas 2011-02-21
AGE Acronym for "American Gold Eagle" a 1 ounce gold coin minted yearly by the United States Mint since 1986. There are also 1/2 oz., 1/4 oz. and 1/10 oz. gold eagle coins. ASE Nicholas 2011-02-21
ASE Acronym for "American Silver Eagle" a 1 ounce silver coin minted yearly by the United States Mint since 1986. AGE Nicholas 2011-02-21
FH Full Head (Standing Liberty Quarters) Grading double mike 2011-02-10
FS Full Steps (Jefferson 5 Cents) Grading double mike 2011-02-10
FBL Full Bell Lines (Franklin Half Dollars) Grading double mike 2011-02-10
VAM Cataloging system for Morgan & Peace dollar Varieties double mike 2011-02-10
GSA General Services Administration (Morgan dollars sold by the Government) double mike 2011-02-10
incusive An incusive design is when the design is carved into the coin instead of bulging out from the coin. Nicholas 2011-01-16
proof having a mirror-like finish;struck with polished dies on polished blanks. grades double mike 2011-01-12
FS# (Fivaz/Stanton) The Cherrypickers Guide to rare die varieties of United State Coins. Varieties double mike 2011-01-09
DDR Double Die Reverse, Doubling seen on the baack (reverse) of the coin. Varieties double mike 2011-01-09
DDO Double Die Obverse, Doubling seen on the front (obverse) of the coin. Varieties double mike 2011-01-09
NGC Abbreviation for Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. The NGC is one of the major coin grading companies. Third Party Grading grade Nicholas 2010-12-24
ANACS Abbreviation for American Numismatic Association Certification Service. ANACS is the oldest of the major coin grading companies. Third Party Grading grade Nicholas 2010-12-24
PCGS Abbreviation for Professional Coin Grading Service. The PCGS is one of the major coin grading companies. They were also one of the first to introduce encapsulating coins after grading. Third Party Grading grade encapsulate Nicholas 2010-12-24
Third Party Grading Abbreviated as TPG, Third Party Grading is the independent grading of the condition of a coin. The most popular three are PCGS, NGC and ANACS. A collector will typically mail in their coins which are then independently graded for a fee and then returned encapsulated in a plastic coin slab. PCGS NGC ANACS slab encapsulate Nicholas 2010-12-24
encapulate To put a coin into a sealed plastic holder often called a slab. Most modern Third Party Grading companies will typically encapsulate a coin after it has been graded. slab Third Party Grading Nicholas 2010-12-24
TPG Third Party Graders are companies that grade coins. The most popular three are PCGS, NGC and ANACS. A collector will typically mail in their coins which are then independently graded for a fee and then returned encapsulated in a plastic coin slab. PCGS NGC ANACS slab encapsulated Nicholas 2010-12-24
Sheldon Scale The Sheldon scale is the most commonly used system of grading coin condition. Coins are ranked on a scale of 1 to 70 with 70 being the best possible grade. Third Party Grading TPG grade Nicholas 2010-12-24
grade A grade is a judgment of a coin's condition. The most common scale of grading coins is the Sheldon Scale. Using the Sheldon Scale, a coin is ranked between 1 and 70 where 70 is the highest possible quality and 1 is the worst possible condition of the coin. Third Party Grading TPG Sheldon Scale Nicholas 2010-12-24
intrinsic value The value of the metals that make up the coin. Also known as a melt value. Nicholas 2010-12-24
type set A type set is a coin collection or part of a coin collection based on coin design or type. Lincoln cents from the U.S. and 1 oz. Krugerrand coins from South Africa. key date Nicholas 2010-12-24
key date A key date is a coin from a type set with a low number of available coins either due to a low minting or from melting.

For example let us say there is a coin that has been minted for 3 years. In the first year 1 million coins were minted. In the second year only 500 coins were minted. In the third year 2 million coins were minted. The second year is considered the key date from this type set as it is much rarer than the other years.

semi-key type set Nicholas 2010-12-24
bag mark Flaws on the surface of a coin originating from contact with other coins while in a mint bag. mint bag Nicholas 2010-12-24
buck Buck is a slang term for a dollar or similar currency in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Philippines, Sri Lanka, South Africa and the United States. Nicholas 2010-12-21
toonie Nickname given for the Canadian 2 dollar coin. As the one dollar coin is commonly called a "loonie", the word toonie is a combination of "two' and "loonie". Other nicknames that did not quite catch on: bearie (analogous to the Loonie and its loon), the bearly, the deuce, the doubloonie (a play on "double Loonie" and the former Spanish doubloon coin), and the moonie--because it depicted "the Queen with a bear behind"(yes that is punderful). loonie Nicholas 2010-12-21
loonie Nickname given for the Canadian 1 dollar coin due to the fact that it bears the image of a common loon on the reverse side. The loon is a well-known Canadian bird. "Loonie" became such a widely used and accepted name that when Canada issued a 2 dollar coin years later, it was nicknamed the "toonie." toonie Nicholas 2010-12-21
assayer A person who assays metals to determine the purity present. Nicholas 2010-11-17
assay To analyze and determine the purity of metal such as silver, gold or platinum. assayer Nicholas 2010-11-17
bragger tokens Bragger tokens are earned each time a Coinbragger contributes to the website. Some ways to earn tokens are: adding coins, photos, and values of coins to our database. Adding information on countries' mints as well as adding glossary terms will also increase your total bragger tokens. More information Coinbragger mint Nicholas 2010-11-17
numismatics Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects. Numismatists are those who take part in numismatics. Numismatics also branches into the subcategories: exonumia, scripophily and notaphily. exonumia scripophily notaphily Nicholas 2010-10-18
non-circulating commemorative Non-circulating commemoratives are coins made by a mint that are not intended for general ciruclation. Most often the coins are sold directly to coin collectors or to an authorized coin dealer. commemorative mint circulation Nicholas 2010-10-18
circulating commemorative Circulating commemoratives are commemorative coins that are sent into circulation by the issuing mint. Some examples of circulating commemoratives are the United States Statehood quarters issued between 1999 and 2008. The reverse side of Spain's coins from 1980-1982 commemorated the FIFA World Cup. circulation mint Nicholas 2010-10-18
commemorative Commemorative coins pay tribute to a notable person, place, thing or event. There are circulating commemoratives and non-concirculating commemoratives. Circulating commemoratives are sent into circulation by the issuing mint while non-circulating commemoratives are sold directly to coin collectors. circulating commemorative non-circulating commemorative circulation mint Nicholas 2010-10-18
tughra A calligraphic signature of an Ottoman sultan (and some other rules to the modern day) that was affixed to official documents, carved on his seal, and stamped on coins and inscribed on some stamps issued during his reign. The plural form is tughras. Also spelled, toughra. Nicholas 2010-10-18
reverse The "back" side of a coin, often referred to as "tails." If a person is depicted on a coin, that side is usually considered the obverse side of the coin. When pictured side by side, usually the reverse is shown to the right of the obverse image. back tails obverse coins 2010-10-18
obverse The "front" side of a coin, often referred to as "heads." If a person is depicted on a coin, that side is usually considered the obverse side of the coin. Dates are most often on the obverse side of a coin. When pictured side by side, usually the obverse is shown to the left of the reverse image. front heads reverse coins 2010-10-18

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